Military Branches

U.S. Navy

Military Gifts
Flag Day
U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Navy
U.S. Air Force
U.S. Army
Women in the Military
Military Photos
Military Issues
Memorial Day
Military Funerals
Favorite Links
Contact Me


By LTC Daniel D. Smith, Sr. (TN)*
"Heads up" former Sea Services personnel. If, in years past, you've ever been lying around a ship's berthing compartments, dying for a candy bar or pack of crackers, but since the ship was not out beyond the 3-mile limit, the "geedunk" wasn't open. What do you do? Well, about that time a shipmate, passing through your compartment, says "the roach coach is on the pier." Eureka, your hunger pains will be satisfied. Ever happen?
If this all sounds Greek to you, then the following naval glossary and word history may help.
GEEDUNK - To most sailors the word geedunk means ice cream, candy, potato chips and other assorted snacks, or even the place where they can be purchased. No one, however, knows for certain where the term originated, but there are several plausible theories:
1.) In the 1920's a comic strip character named Harold Teen and his friends spent a great amount of time at Pop's candy store. The store's owner called it The Geedunk for reasons never explained.
2.) The Chinese word meaning a place of idleness sounds something like gee dung.
3.) Geedunk is the sound made by a vending machine when it dispenses a soft drink in a cup.
4.) It may be derived from the German word tunk meaning to dip or sop either in gravy or coffee. Dunking was a common practice in days when bread, not always obtained fresh, needed a bit of tunking to soften it. The GE is a German unaccented prefix denoting repetition. In time it may have changed from getunk to geedunk. Whatever theory we use to explain geedunk's origin, it doesn't alter the fact that Navy people are glad it all got started.
GOAT LOCKER - Entertainment on liberty took many forms, mostly depending on the coast and opportunity. One incident which became tradition was at a Navy-Army football game. In early sailing years, livestock would travel on ships, providing the crew fresh milk, meats, and eggs, as well as serving as ships' mascots. One pet, a goat named El Cid (meaning Chief) was the mascot aboard the USS New York. When its crew attended the fourth Navy-Army football game in 1893, they took El Cid to the game, which resulted in the West Pointers losing. El Cid (The Chief) was offered shore duty at Annapolis and became the Navy's mascot. This is believed to be the source of the old Navy term, "Goat Locker."
MIND YOUR P's AND Q's - Nowadays a term meaning "Be on your best behavior." In old days, sailors serving aboard government ships could always get credit at the waterfront taverns until pay-day. As they would only pay for those drinks which were marked up on the score-board, the tavern-keeper had to be careful that no Pints or Quarts had been omitted from the customers list.
CHIEF PETTY OFFICERS - An Executive order issued by President Benjamin Harrison dated 25 February 1893 and issued as General order No. 409 of 25 February 1893 gave a pay scale for Navy enlisted men. It was divided into rates and listed Chief Petty Officers. Both the executive and Circular No. 1 listed Chief Petty Officers as a distinct rate for the first time and both were to take effect on 01 April 1893. It appears that this is the date on which the Chief Petty Officer rate actually was established.
NAVY COLORS- 27 August 1802 the Secretary of the Navy signed an instruction which set a pattern for the dress of the U.S. Navy in Blue and Gold.
UNIFORM REGULATIONS - The first uniform instruction for the U.S. Navy was issued by the Secretary of War on 24 August 1791. It provided a distinctive dress for the officers who would command the ships of the Federal Navy. The instruction did not include a uniform for the enlisted man, although there was a degree of uniformity. The usual dress of a seaman was made up of a short jacket, shirt, vest, long trousers, and a black low crowned hat.
FOULED ANCHOR - The foul anchor as a naval insignia got its start as the seal of the Lord Howard of Effingham. He was the Lord Admiral of England at the time of the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588. During this period the personal seal of a great officer of state was adopted as the seal of his office. The fouled anchor still remains the official seal of the Lord High Admiral of Great Britain. When this office became part of the present Board of Admiralty, the seal was retained on buttons, official seals, and cap badges. The Navy's adoption of this symbol and many other customs can be directly attributed to the influence of British Naval tradition. The fouled anchor is among them.
THE CPO FOULED ANCHOR - The Fouled Anchor is the emblem of the Rate of Chief Petty Officer of the United States Navy. Attached to the Anchor is a length of chain and the letters U.S.N.
KHAKI - Originated in 1845 in India where British soldiers soaked white uniforms in mud, coffee, and curry powder to blend in with the landscape. Khakis made their debut in the U.S. Navy in 1912 when they were worn by naval aviators, and were adopted for submarines in 1931. In 1941 the Navy approved khakis for on-station wear by senior officers, and soon after Pearl Harbor chiefs and officers were authorized to wear khakis ashore on liberty.
BROWN SHOES - In 1913 high laced shoes of tan leather first appeared in Uniform Regulations and were authorized for wear by aviators with khakis. The color changed to russet brown in 1922. Uniforms exclusive to the aviation community were abolished in the 1920's and reinstated in the 1930's. The authorized color of aviators shoes has alternated between brown and black since then.
BELL BOTTOM TROUSERS - Commonly believed that the trousers were introduced in 1817 to permit men to roll them above the knee when washing down the decks, and to make it easier to remove them in a hurry when forced to abandon ship or when washed overboard. The trousers may be used as a life preserver by knotting the legs and swinging them over your head to fill the legs with air.
THIRTEEN BUTTONS ON TROUSERS - There is no relationship between the 13 buttons on the trousers and the 13 original colonies. Before 1894, the trousers had only seven buttons and in the early 1800's they had 15 buttons. It wasn't until the broad fall front was enlarged that the 13 buttons were added to the uniform and only then to add symmetry of design.
FLAT HATS - First authorized in 1852 the flat hat was eliminated on 1 April 1963 due to non-available materials. The original hats had unit names on the front, however, unit names were taken off in January 1941.
WHITE HAT - In 1852 a white cover was added to the soft visorless blue hat. In 1866 a white sennet straw hat was authorized as an additional item. During the 1880's the white "sailors hat" appeared as a low rolled brim high-domed item made of wedge shaped pieces of canvas to replace the straw hat. The canvas was eventually replaced by cotton as a cheaper more comfortable material. Many complaints on the quality and construction led to modifications ending in the currently used white hat.
JUMPER FLAPS - The collar originated as a protective cover for the jacket to protect it from the grease or powder normally worn by seamen to hold hair in place.
STRIPES AND STARS ON JUMPER UNIFORMS - On 18 January 1876, Rear Admiral Stephen B. Luce recommended a collar with stars and stripes as a substitute for the plain collar used on the frocks of seamen. Three stripes on the collar was proposed for all grades, with the stripes on the cuffs to indicated grade. One stripe for E-1, etc.
DISTINGUISHING MARKS/RATING BADGES - In 1841, insignia called "distinguishing marks" were first prescribed as part of the official uniform. An eagle and anchor emblem, forerunner of the rating badge, was the first distinguishing mark. In 1886 rating badges were established, and some 15 specialty marks were also provided to cover the various ratings. On 1 April 1893, petty officers were reclassified and the rating of chief petty officer was established. Until 1949 rating badges were worn on the right or left sleeve, depending on whether the person concerned was on the starboard or port watch. Since February 1948, all distinguishing marks have been worn on the right sleeve between the shoulder and elbow.
RIGHT ARM RATES - Established in 1841 and disestablished 2 April 1949, originally signified men of the Seaman branch. During WW II these rates included Boatswains Mate, Turret Captain, Signalman, Gunners Mate, Fire Controlman, Quartermaster, Mineman, and Torpedomans Mate. Other ratings wore rates on the left sleeve.
MEN'S NECKERCHIEF - The black neckerchief or bandanna first appeared as early as the 16th century and was utilized as a sweat band and collar closure. Black was the predominant color as it was practical and did not readily show dirt. There is no truth to the myth that the black neckerchief was designed as a sign of mourning for Admiral Nelson's death.
NECKERCHIEF SQUARE KNOT - There is no historical significance to the knot other that it being a knot widely used by sailors which presents a uniform appearance.
DUNGAREES - In 1901 regulations authorized the first use of denim jumpers and trousers, and the 1913 regulations originally permitted the dungaree outfit to be used by both officers and enlisted with the hat of the day.
DITTY BAG - Ditty bag (or box) was originally called ditto bag because it contained at least two of everything: two needles, two spools of thread, two buttons, etc. With the passing of years, the 'ditto' was dropped in favor of ditty and remains so today. Before WW I, the Navy issued ditty boxes made of wood and styled after foot lockers. These carried the personal gear and some clothes of the sailor. Today the ditty bag is still issued to recruits and contains a sewing kit, toiletry articles and personal items such as writing paper and pens.
CLOTHES STOPS - A small diameter cord, approximately 12 inches, used to tie laundry to a clothes line -- the early Navy clothes pin. Issued in recruit training until 1973.
ENLISTED WOMEN - The first enlisted women's uniform was comprised of a single breasted coat, blue in winter and white in summer, long gull bottomed skirts and a straight-brimmed sailor hat, blue felt in winter and white straw in summer, black shoes and stockings.
BOATSWAIN'S PIPE - No self-respecting boatswain's mate would dare admit he couldn't blow his pipe in a manner above reproach. This pipe, which is the emblem of the boatswain and his mates, has an ancient and interesting history. On the ancient row-galleys, the boatswain used his pipe to call the stroke. Later because its shrill tune could be heard above most of the activity on board, it was used to signal various happenings such as knock-off and the boarding of officials. So essential was this signaling device to the well-being of the ship, that it became a badge of office and honor in the British and American Navy of the sailing ships.
AVIATION GREEN UNIFORM - In September 1917 the "Forestry" Green uniform of the U.S. Marine Corps was authorized for aviation officers as a winter working uniform. The earliest use of the uniform by enlisted men came in 1941 when chief petty officers designated as Naval Aviation Pilots were authorized to wear the uniform. In November 1985 Aviation Working Greens were authorized for wear by women in the aviation community.
NAVY GRAY UNIFORMS - Gray uniforms in the same style as khaki were first introduced on 16 April 1943 as an officers uniform. On 3 June 1943 the uniform was extended to include Chief Petty Officers. On 31 March 1944 cooks and stewards were permitted to wear the gray uniform. The Navy abolished use of "grays" on 15 October 1949.
COCKED HAT - A hat worn by officers with ceremonial uniforms commonly refereed to as a "fore and aft" hat. During the 1700's the hat was worn parallel to the shoulders, but in the 1800's was modified to be worn with the points to the front and back. Wearing of the Cocked Hat was discontinued on 12 October 1940.
TATTOOS - A tattoo of a pig on one leg of a sailor and a rooster (cock) on the other is a charm against drowning.
ANCHORS AWEIGH - Music written by Bandmaster Lieut. Zimmerman. In 1906, Lieut. Zimmerman was approached by Midshipman First Class Alfred Hart Miles with a request for a new march. As a member of the Class of 1907, Miles and his classmates "were eager to have a piece of music that would be inspiring, one with a swing to it so it could be used as a football marching song, and one that would live forever."
SPLICE THE MAIN BRACE - "Splice the main brace, all hands forward to" is a summons to an extra ration of grog for work well done. From the book A Sailor's Treasury by Frank Shay, Copyright 1951.
DAVY JONES - Davy Jones and His Locker American Sailors would rather not talk about Davy Jones and his infamous locker. They are ready enough to refer to him and his dwelling place, but just leave him an indefinite, unbodied character who keeps to his place at the bottom of the sea. Pressed, they will profess that they do not know what he looks like, his locker is to them something like an ordinary sea chest or coffin, always open to catch any sailor unfortunate enough to find himself in the sea. Some English sailors incline to the belief that his name is a corruption of Duffer Jones, a clumsy fellow who frequently found himself overboard. The only time Davy comes to life is in the ceremony of crossing the line. Then he is usually impersonated by the smallest sailor on board, given a hump, horns and a tail, and his features made as ugly as possible. He is swinish, dressed in rags and seaweed, and shambles along in the wake of the sea king, Neptune, playing evil tricks upon his fellow sailors. Old sailors, rather than speak of the devil, called him Deva, Davy or Taffy, the thief of the evil spirit; and Jones is from Jonah, whose locker was the whale's belly. Jonah was often called Jonas, and as Davy Jones, the enemy of all living sailors, he has become the mariners' evil angel. To be cast into the sea and sink is to fall into his locker and have the lid popped down on one. It is generally agreed that the Christian sailor's body goes to Davy Jones's locker, but his soul, if he is a proper sailorman, goes to Fiddlers' Green. From the book A Sailor's Treasury by Frank Shay, Copyright 1951.
SCUTTLEBUTT - Navy term for rumor. Comes from a combination of the word "scuttle" to make a hole in the ship's side, causing her to sink, and "butt", a cask used to hold drinking water. Scuttlebutt literally means a cask with a hole in it. Scuttle describes what most rumors accomplish if not to the ship, at least to morale. Butt describes the water cask where men naturally congregated, and that's where most rumors get started.
SHOW A LEG - In the British Navy of King George III many sailor's wives accompanied them on long voyages. To avoid dragging the wrong "mate" out of the rack at reveille, the bosun asked all to "show a leg". If the leg wore silk, it's owner was allowed to sleep in. If the leg was hairy and tattooed, the owner was forced to "turn to."
DEVIL TO PAY - Originally this denoted a specific task aboard ship such as caulking the ship's longest seam. The "Devil" was the longest seam on the ship and caulking was done with "pay" or pitch. This grueling task was despised by every seaman and the expression came to denote any unpleasant task.
KEELHAUL - An extreme punishment given in which an offender was tied hand and foot, with heavy weights attached to his body. He was slowly lowered over the ship's side and dragged under the ship's hull. If he didn't drown, which was usually the case, then barnacles usually ripped him, causing him to bleed to death.
SKYLARKING - Originally, skylarking described the antics of young Navymen who climbed and slid down the backstays for fun. Since the ancient word "lac" means "to play" and the games started high in the masts, the term was "skylacing." Later, corruption of the word changed it to "skylarking".
NAVY MASCOTS - the navy mascots name is Bill XXVIII (28), there has been 2 cats, 1 dog, 1 carrier pigeon. Goats have been the mascot since 1904.
TAR - was given to sailors because in the old days they used to tar their clothing to make it waterproof.
OLDEST U.S. MILITARY AWARD - The Navy's Medal of Honor, authorized December 21, 1861, is the oldest continuous use military award in America. Source: US Military Medals: 1939 to Present. Foster and Borts, Medals of America Press.
Navy Glossary:
[Source: Navy Bluejackets Manual (1944)]
ALL HANDS - Entire ship's company.
AYE, AYE, SIR - Used by subordinates to seniors in acknowledging an order or command signifying that it is understood and will be carried out.
BATTEN DOWN - To close or make watertight, usually referring to hatches.
BEAR A HAND - Speed up work, or lend a hand.
BLUEJACKET - A seaman in the United States Navy.
BREAK OUT - To unstow, or prepare for use.
CARRY ON - An order to resume work or duties.
CHARLEY NOBLE - Gally smoke-pipe.
CROSSING THE LINE - Crossing the Equator, at which time there is usually a ceremony during which the pollywog (landlubber) becomes a "shellback."
CUT OF THE JIB - General appearance of a vessel or a person.
DITTY BOX/DITTY BAG - A small wooden box or small canvas bag used by bluejackets for stowing small personal gear.
ENSIGN - The national flag; a junior commissioned officer in the Navy.
FIELD DAY - A day for general ship cleaning.
FLOTSAM - Floating wreckage or goods thrown overboard.
GALLEY - The ship's kitchen.
GRAVEYARD WATCH - The middle (mid) watch from 2400 to 0400.
HAND - A member of the ship's crew.
HEAD - A ship's toilet.
HIGH SEAS - The entire ocean beyond the three-mile limit where no nation has special privileges or jurisdiction. (note: nations now claim 10-mile, 12-mile, or more limits)
HIT THE DECK - A phrase used in rousing men from bunks at Reveille.
IRISH PENNANT - Untidy loose end of a line, [or loose threads on a uniform.]
JETSOM - Goods which sink when thrown overboard at sea.
JUMPER - The blouse of a bluejacket's uniform.
JURY RIG - A makeshift rig of mast and sail or other gear.
KNOCK OFF - To stop; to stop work.
LANDLUBBER - Seaman's term for one who has never been to sea.
LADDER - A metal, wooden or rope stairway.
LIBERTY - Permission to be absent from a ship or station for a period up to 48 hours. [72 hours on three-day weekends.] Anything longer than this is not liberty, but is leave charged to an individual's leave balance.
LUCKY BAG - A locker for the stowage of loose articles of clothing and personal gear found aboard the ship [or station].
MAN - To put the proper number of men on a detail so that the work can be done.
MAST - A vertical spar supporting the booms, gaffs and sails on a sailing vessel; a spar supporting signal yard and antennae on a fighting ship; the term applied to the hearing of cases of offense against discipline, or for requests or commendations.
OFFICER OF THE DECK (OOD) - The officer in charge of the ship during each watch and on deck as the Captain's representative.
PADRE - Affectionate slang for the chaplain.
PASS THE WORD - To repeat an order or information to the crew.
PHONETIC ALPHABET - A way of speaking letters so that they will be clearly understood; for example A is "Alpha," B is "Bravo," etc.
PIPE THE SIDE - The ceremony at the gangway in which side boys are drawn up and the boatswain's pipe blown when a high-ranking officer or distinguished visitor comes aboard.
POLLYWOG - One who has never crossed the Equator.
QUARTER DECK - The part of the upper deck reserved for honors and ceremonies.
RANK - Grade of official standing of commissioned officers.
RATE - Grade of official standing of enlisted men.
RATLINE - A short length of small stuff running horizontally across shrouds.
ROCKS AND SHOALS - Slang for the Articles for the Government of the Navy. [Precursor of the Uniformed Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).]
ROPEYARN SUNDAY - A time for repairing clothing. [In the late 1950's Ropeyarn Sunday, when it was held at all, was often held on Wednesday afternoons]
RULES OF THE ROAD - Regulations prescribed to prevent collisions of ships.
SCUTTLE BUTT - A container of fresh water for drinking; a rumor.
SEA BAG - A large canvas bag for stowing the gear of a bluejacket.
SEABEES - Construction battalions (CBs); nickname for bluejackets in a construction battalion.
SEA LAWYER - A seaman who is prone to argue, especially against recognized authority.
SHAKEDOWN CRUISE - Cruise of a newly commissioned ship to test out all machinery and train the crew.
SHELLBACK - One who has crossed the Equator and been initiated.
SHIPSHAPE - Seamanlike and neat.
SHORE PATROL - Same as the Army's Military Police.
SHOVE OFF - Slang for leaving.
SICK BAY - Ship's hospital or dispensary.
SKIPPER - Slang for the Captain.
SKIVVIES - Slang for underwear.
SMART - Snappy, seamanlike [i.e. "Look Smart!"].
SQUARE AWAY - To get things settled down or in order; to complete a job.
STAND BY - A preparatory order meaning "get ready."
STOW - To put gear in its proper place.
STRIKER - A non-rated [sailor] who is qualifying for a petty-officer's rate.
SWAB - A rope mop.
TRICE - To haul up. [Shipboard bunks used to be "triced" up]
TURN TO - An order to begin work. ["Turn to" starts the working day; "Knock off" ends the working day.]
UNCOVER - Remove hat.
VERY WELL - Reply of an officer to a subordinate to indicate that the information given is understood.
WARDROOM - Officer's assembly and mess room aboard a Navy ship.
WATCH - A post or period of duty. [e.g. Quarterdeck watch; phone watch; dempsey dumpster watch; after lookout watch; sounding watch, etc.]
WEIGH - To lift the anchor off the bottom.
*LTC Daniel Smith (TN) is a Military Historian, a member of the Society for Military History, and is a member of the Board for the National Medal of Honor Museum of Military History.

Horizontal Divider 1

Horizontal Divider 1

Reserves Celebrate 93 Years of Service and Dedication
Story Number: NNS080303-13
Release Date: 3/3/2008 2:07:00 PM

By Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Jose Lopez, Jr., Naval Reserve Fleet Public Affairs Center, San Diego

SAN DIEGO (NNS) -- The U.S. Navy Reserve Force (NRF) celebrated 93 years of citizen Sailors supporting the fleet on March 3.

Though Congress passed legislation that officially created the NRF in 1915, its roots can be traced back to the Revolutionary War, when citizens captured the British armed schooner Margaretta on June 12, 1775, off the coast of Machias, Maine. This would be the first of many actions taken by local naval militias that would forge the heritage culminating in the modern Navy Reserve.

"Throughout their history, Navy reservists have contributed significantly to our national defense and all major conflicts," said Chief of Naval Operations Adm. Gary Roughead, in a Navy message commemorating the anniversary of the Reserves. "Since Sept. 11, 2001, more than 50,000 augmentation requirements have been filled by reserve Sailors in support of combatant commands."

Hundreds of years before the terrorist attacks on the Pentagon and the twin towers, citizen Sailors participated in naval conflicts against the British, in Mexico and on U.S. soil. At the conclusion of the Civil War, Capt. Alfred Thayer Mahan published "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History," which called for the modernization of the fleet and the establishment of a reserve force. Mahan's theories were put to the test during the Spanish-American War, when the U.S. destroyed Spain's aging armada. A reserve force was called to patrol the coasts in case of an attempted Spanish invasion.

Many answered the call to arms, as Navy Reservists continue to do today to support the sea service's Maritime Strategy, which calls for rapid adaptability in an ever-changing environment. The strategy has Reservists serving aboard ships, ashore, and with U.S. Army and Marine combat forces on the ground.

Local and regional Navy Operational Support Centers (NOSC) provide training and administrative support to local Reservists and their commands to smoothly integrate them alongside their active duty counterparts when they are called to serve.

"We enable our Reserve sailors to get out to the fleet and support the fleet," said Capt. Ken Ireland, commanding officer NOSC, North Island. "Depending on what the active component of Fleet Forces Command and others desire for their Reservists to perform, I've got Sailors working all spectrums of naval warfare, from flying aircraft, health units, to intelligence specialists supporting the war on terrorism."

For 93 years, the Reserves have been called to duty and have responded with professionalism.

"With their continued readiness, response posture and relevant capabilities," said Roughead. "Reserve component Sailors are more aligned and integrated with the fleet than ever before and enable us to accomplish our mission."

For more news from Commander, Naval Reserve Force, visit

Invocation for 2007 Philadelphia Veterans Stand Down Closing Ceremony 
[ Ph 1:6 ]

Thank you for this weekend together…
For assisting us in helping each other
And sharing of our lives with each other;
That we may become what you created us to be.
Give us the light of Your Spirit
That we may go forth from here
To become, in the words of St. Irenaeus,
The showing of Your glory
As men and women fully alive.

 -Gerald A. Ney
Exact quote from the Greek Father:
"The glory of God is man fully alive."











On Sunday, December 7th,  1941 the Japanese launched a surprise attack against the U.S. Forces  stationed at Pearl Harbor , Hawaii . By planning his attack on a Sunday, the  Japanese commander Admiral Nagumo, hoped to catch the entire fleet in port.  As luck would have it, the Aircraft Carriers and one of the Battleships were  not in port. (The USS Enterprise was returning from Wake Island, where it  had just delivered some aircraft. The USS Lexington was ferrying aircraft to  Midway, and the USS Saratoga and USS Colorado were undergoing repairs in the  United States.)

In spite of the latest intelligence reports  about the missing aircraft carriers (his most important targets), Admiral  Nagumo decided to continue the attack with his force of six carriers and 423  aircraft. At a range of
230 miles north of Oahu, he launched the first wave  of a two-wave attack. Beginning at 0600 hours his first wave consisted of  183 fighters and torpedo bombers which struck at the fleet in Pearl Harbor  and the airfields in Hickam, Kaneohe and Ewa. The second strike, launched at  0715 hours, consisted of 167 aircraft, which again struck at the same  targets.

At 0753 hours the first wave consisting of 40  Nakajima B5N2 "Kate" torpedo bombers, 51 Aichi D3A1 "Val" dive bombers, 50  high altitude bombers and
43 Zeros struck airfields and Pearl Harbor Within  the next hour, the second wave arrived and continued the attack. When it  was over, the U.S. losses were:

Casualties USA : 218 KIA, 364  WIA. USN: 2,008 KIA, 710 WIA. USMC: 109 KIA, 69  WIA. Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA. TOTAL: 2,403 KIA, 1,178  WIA.

Battleships USS Arizona (BB-39) - total loss  whe n a bomb hit her magazine. USS Oklahoma (BB-37) - Total loss  when she capsized and sunk in the harbor. USS California (BB-44) - Sunk  at her berth. Later raised and repaired. USS West Virginia  (BB-48) - Sunk at her berth. Later raised and repaired. USS Nevada -  (BB-36) Beached to prevent sinking. Later repaired. USS  Pennsylvania (BB-38) - Light damage. USS Maryland (BB-46) - Light  damage. USS Tennessee (BB-43) Light damage. USS Utah  (AG-16) - (former battleship used as a target) - Sunk.
Cruisers USS New Orleans (CA-32) - Light  Damage.. USS San Francisco (CA38) - Light Damage. USS Detroit  (CL-8) - Light Damage. USS Raleigh (CL-7) - Heavily  damaged but repaired. USS Helena (CL-50) - Light Damage. USS  Honolulu (CL-48) - Light  Damage..
Destroyers USS Downes (DD-375) - Destroyed. Parts salvaged. USS Cassin - (DD-37 2) Destroyed. Parts salvaged. USS Shaw (DD-373)  - Very heavy damage. USS Helm (DD-388) - Light  Damage.
Minelayer USS Ogala (CM-4) - Sunk but later raised and  repaired.
Seaplane Tender USS Curtiss (AV-4) - Severely damaged but  later repaired.
Repair Ship USS Vestal (AR-4) - Sever ely damaged but later  repaired.
Harbor Tug USS Sotoyomo (YT-9) - Sunk but later raised and  repaired.
188 Aircraft destroyed (92 USN and 92 U.S. Army Air  Corps.)

click here to download file and have a chuckle

By Mark D. Faram
Navy Times
Staff writer

Monday, Sep 10, 2007 14:38:19 EDT

Boot camp just got tougher.  That's because recruits now must go to sea
and qualify to graduate - all without leaving the base.  It happens
inside the new $82.5 million Battle Stations 21 trainer onboard the
Trayer, a new "ship" recently put into service at the Navy's boot camp
in Great Lakes, Ill.It's the high-tech follow-on to the old "legacy"
Battle Stations - team-building and problem-solving events utilizing
cast-off fleet gear in old, worn-down buildings spread out over the
entire base.

Now, the culminating boot camp event is all under one new roof, on a
ship powered by high-cost, Hollywood-style special effects.So
cutting-edge is the technology that this one-of-a-kind military trainer
is being eyed by the Saudi Arabian and British navies for use in their
own training.Army and Marine Corps trainers are also keen to leverage
the technology.  What recruits now get is a complete shipboard battle
scenario as well as an extensive gray hull orientation.

Along the way, they're tested on topics taught in the boot camp
curriculum and schooled in the ways of the Navy.  All that happens
during a 12-hour make-or-break experience that serves as the culmination
of boot camp.  Since May 21, when the trainer went live, nine sailors
have failed Battle Stations on the first try. All passed on a second
attempt.  No doubt, it's a tough new task for sailors to navigate.

"The legacy Battle Stations was a pure confidence course," said Chief
Fire Controlman (SW) Michael North, one of the instructors assigned to
the Battle Stations complex.  "It's still a confidence course, but it's
also a full-blown ship simulator.  [It gives] these recruits their first
feel, taste and smell of what it's like to live and work on a real ship.
"So realistic is the Trayer that North adds: "Sometimes, late at night,
I have to remind myself I'm at Great Lakes and not at sea.  "Old salts
may not notice some of the nuances that help bring this ship to life.

They are not lost on the newbies.  "It's little things, like sounds and
routine 1MC calls and simple shipboard noises that we've all heard a
thousand times, but for [recruits], it's brand new," said Hull
Maintenance Technician 1st Class (SW/AW) George Johnson, one of the
ship's instructors.  "It's the closest you can get to being on an actual
ship.  If I'd had something like this in boot camp, I'd be light-years
ahead when I got to my first ship, because I'd have done all these
things once before."The ship

About 8 p.m., recruits are marched into the BS21 complex.  Before they
see their ship, their recruit division commanders are sent away, and
BS21 staff take the helm.The staff members greet the recruits and
quickly get down to business.  They watch mock television newscasts
warning of imminent terrorist attack in Norfolk, Va.

They get a briefing by Trayer's captain - played convincingly by Kitty
Hawk skipper Capt. Todd Zecchin - who later pops up on screens
strategically placed around the ship to coach, warn and advise his
sailors throughout the night.  In all, 17 different videos will be
shown, one for each scenario the recruits will tackle. Some convey
history lessons, while others update the "battle situation" in which the
recruits are engaged.

Soon, the recruits march from the dark warehouse setting onto the
pier.Looming above them is the Trayer, a 210-foot-long replica of a
guided-missile destroyer.  It's lit up like any other ship in port.
Trayer sits in water - 90,000 gallons of it, to be exact - and the
wooden pilings next to the pier are even painted with authentic-looking
seagull droppings.  Recruits are greeted by a slight breeze and various
waterfront sounds, from seagull cries to helicopter rotors.

So real is the "surround sound" that some recruits have been seen to
flinch when the helicopter sound roars overhead.  Such sounds continue
throughout the night.  There are the constant 1MC announcements, and the
whine of ship's turbines is deafening when the ship goes to flank speed
after being "attacked" by terrorists.  "It was surreal at first, walking
onto that pier.

The detail was so good that it really felt and sounded like I was on a
pier in Norfolk," said Fireman Recruit Justin Bruce, who navigated
Battle Stations on Aug. 19.  One by one, wide-eyed sailors cross the
Trayer's brow and head inside the skin of the ship.  They each clutch a
seabag containing a set of coveralls they'll later wear and a change of
socks.  They stare at gray walls and blue terrazzo decks adorned with
all the deck, bulkhead and overhead fittings familiar to fleet sailors.

On this ship, however, the passageways are noticeably wider than most
you'd find in the fleet - 3 feet in some places.  That's by design, to
ensure the maximum number of recruits can safely navigate around the
ship at the same time.  Recruits start their Battle Stations around 8
p.m. and finish 12 hours later.  There's no food, no sleep, just water
to sip from welcome canteens.

And when it's all over, most of the recruits will have been up for more
than 24 hours straight.  Just like life at sea on any ship, there are
endless hours of numbing routine that can change in an instant to
catastrophe.  For the Trayer, that nightmare begins at 2 a.m., when the
ship is rocked three times by missile attacks over a four-hour period.
The rooms literally shake from the force of the blows - forcing the
recruits to brace themselves for shock against the bulkheads.  After the
first strike, the ship loses power.

The red lights of a ship underway switch off and on, punctuated every
few seconds by the white light of battle lanterns as the power is
repeatedly cut off.  In the background, alarms blare over the ship's
loudspeaker.  As the stress factors rise, the groups of recruits must
make their way to safety and help save and operate their ship.  It's
orchestrated chaos that sees some recruits take charge and others
dutifully follow orders.

Teamwork is key.  "All through boot camp, we didn't do things good as a
team, but that one night, people stepped forward you didn't expect to
lead and the rest of the people just picked up the slack - it was an
incredible thing to watch," said Seaman Recruit Anthony Baca, a future
quartermaster who went through Battle Stations the night of Aug. 19.

"Some people who [everyone] thought were the weak links of our division
turned out to be the real leaders."  For Seaman Apprentice Keren
Figueroa, pinpointing key moments in team building were easy.  "It was
the mass casualty scenario," Figueroa said, "the one that simulates an
explosion on the mess decks and in a berthing compartment.  We had to go
in and find our injured shipmates in the mess."]

This drill is directly based on what happened on the guided-missile
destroyer Cole on Oct. 12, 2000, when terrorists exploded a bomb next to
the ship, ripping a gaping hole and crushing sailors eating on the mess
decks.  "It was where it all clicked for us," Figueroa said.  "There was
smoke everywhere and there were electrical wires sparking all over the
place - it was a real mess, and we had to find our way through it as a
team.  "One by one, her crew located the "injured shipmates" -
life-sized dummies that can talk and moan.

"They weighed 130 pounds, and it took six of us to carry each of them,"
she said.  "And the noises they made ... it was sometimes too realistic.
We never would have made it if we didn't come together as a group - it
was just too tough.  "Once at general quarters, the misery levels
increase, too.

One of the chief culprits here is the traditional flooding scenario.
Trayer's version is based on a magazine catastrophe onboard the
amphibious ship Tripoli after striking a mine Feb. 18, 1991, in the
Persian Gulf.  Upon entering the space, the recruits see a burst pipe
that's rapidly spewing water.  In the chaos, some recruits must tackle
the leak while the others must move ammunition rounds from the damaged
space into a dry one next door.For those who don't fix the leak quickly,
it can be a long night.

The water can actually rise over the top of the rubber firefighting
boots the recruits wear during the scenario.  "Just being wet most of
the night was tough, and we stayed wet until we were done," Figueroa
said.  "However, we did get to change our socks so our feet wouldn't get
blisters.  "It's not all trial by fire.  The recruits get the chance to
stand routine engine room and lookout watches, providing glimpses of
careers to come.

"I'm going to be a quartermaster when I get to the fleet," Figueroa
said.  "Our facilitator was a chief quartermaster, and he showed us
everything on the bridge and described what I'd be doing when on watch
in the fleet."  For Bruce, standing watch in Trayer's auxiliary
machinery room was a vision of his future.

"It really hit me, like this is where I'm going to be," Bruce said.  "It
was really loud, even wearing the ear muff hearing protection.  I had a
hard time hearing anyone.  But I got to see what my job will be like,
and I'll be better prepared once I get to the fleet, I think."


Finally, about 7 a.m., the shipboard fires are under control, the
flooding has been stopped, and the ship finally "returns" to its berth
at Norfolk. If all goes well, the ordeal has been weathered.Once the
ship ties up, there's new activity on the pier as the Battle Stations
staff prepares for the final act - the historic capping ceremony where
recruits officially become sailors.

They doff their ballcaps with the word "RECRUIT" and trade them for ones
that say "NAVY." While formal graduation is still to come, this moment
signifies the end of boot camp.  "You have been tested and you have
proved yourselves," Capt. Annie Andrews, commanding officer of Recruit
Training Command, announced to the ranks of sailors standing on the

"Not only have you come through this, but you did it as a team, and
that's what being a sailor is all about; congratulations, shipmates."
"The capping ceremony was probably the only time in boot camp I cried,"
Figueroa said.  "I really felt a part of the Navy - you can't believe
how good it felt."  For Baca, the reality set in when his recruit
division commander shook his hand and congratulated him.  "It was the
first time I'd ever looked him in the eye," he said. "I felt I could now
do that because we were both sailors."




Horizontal Divider 1


Naval Academy Sets Tough Wartime Rules

By Steve Vogel
Washington Post Staff Writer
Saturday, August 18, 2007; B01

The U.S. Naval Academy's new superintendent announced yesterday stricter
rules for midshipmen, declaring that students at the Annapolis military
academy need to spend more time preparing for war and less time on
distracting extracurricular activities.

Students, who are returning to campus for Monday's start of the school
year, will have reduced off-campus liberty hours, more mandatory study
hours and more limited extracurricular activities, Vice Adm. Jeffrey L.
Fowler told reporters.

"This is not just a college scholarship program," Fowler said during the
interview in the superintendent's conference room. "My job is to make
sure we minimize distraction."

The new policies follow several incidents of sexual misconduct and
excessive drinking, including high-profile sex-assault cases involving
football players and reports of a raucous spring break cruise in the

Fowler cast the changes as having more to do with preparing future Navy
and Marine officers for wartime duty than with cracking down on

"We are a nation at war," he said. "If any campus should understand
being a nation at war, it's the United States Naval Academy."

Fowler's comments were echoed by his senior staff. "We do not have the
luxury of letting our midshipmen learn about life in the Fleet and the
Marine Corps once they get there," Capt. Margaret Klein, the commandant
of midshipmen, said in a statement released by the academy. "They need
to be ready to lead Sailors and Marines the day they graduate from this

Fowler also noted that the academy staff must focus on preparing
midshipmen "morally, mentally and physically" to be officers and that he
wanted to instill "a sense of urgency" to the job. "I do not like
wasting a single minute," he said.

Fowler assumed command from the retiring Vice Adm. Rodney P. Rempt on
June 8. Rempt faced criticism from some alumni for his focus on sexual
misconduct cases at the academy, in particular his decision to bring
charges against former Navy quarterback Lamar S. Owens, who was cleared
of raping a female midshipman but convicted of misconduct for having sex
in a dorm.

Fowler, 50, a 1978 graduate of the academy, has held a variety of
submarine commands and also served as chief of Navy recruiting. "I come
from the fleet," he said. "That was probably intentional."

Returning midshipmen and plebes were told of the new policies at
sessions this week with Fowler and other commanders.

Fowler said that when speaking to the midshipmen, he noted that the USS
Dwight D. Eisenhower carrier group recently returned from a 230-day
deployment that included only 15 days of leave. "Our midshipmen need to
understand that's what our sailors are going through, and that's who
they're going to lead," he said.

Klein's statement lists a series of operational changes "in support of
the Superintendent's vision for the Naval Academy":

* There will be no liberty, or free time off campus, for any midshipman
on weeknights, although seniors might eventually be entitled to earn
limited weeknight liberty for outstanding performance.

* All midshipmen will have mandatory study periods Sunday through
Thursday nights, as well as Friday nights for first- and second-year

* All meals from Sunday dinner through Friday lunch are mandatory.

* Seniors will wear khaki uniforms to highlight their distinction as
leaders and "to bring them in line with the fleet they will enter in 9

Fowler said a review conducted since he took command had found the
facility, faculty and staff at the academy to be "in great shape" and
the student body to be first-rate.

"There is no crisis at the academy," Fowler said.

(c) 2007 The Washington Post Company



















Powered by WebRing.

Previous List Random Join Next Viper's Vietnam Veteran Page
SiteRing by


Fun Graphix is a non gain, non profit group for sharing purposes only.
DO NOT contact the Owners or Members over copyright issues.
All shares are done under the FAIR USE Act with out any gain or profit
& therefore is not a crime .
No Members claim to have made any of the graphics that they send to this lis/websitet. 
The graphics come from a wide variety of web sources & are therefore deemed to be public domain. As far as they are aware they are licensed for personal use only, & are by their respective artist. Any infringement of said copyright is non intentional.
The tubes/mists/graphix are for Non-Profit use ONLY any other use is prohibited.
All respected rights go back to the original creator

Free TopSite


Powered by WebRing.

POW/MIA Awareness
Powered By Ringsurf

Previous List Random Join Next Viper's Vietnam Veteran Page
SiteRing by


Please get in touch with any comments or reactions to my site.


All Graphics on this website are snaggable. Merely right click on them and save to your your photos on your computer. The Webmistress is a "Feel Free Graphic Artist". This is another website created by POW/MIA Angel. Copyright 2007.